Jacques Monod (1910-1976) was a French biologist who shared the 1965 Nobel Prize for medicine for some of his research into genetics. He believed that life arose by chance, and in 1970 published an influential and best-selling book - translated into English as "Chance and Necessity" - explaining his views on this for a non-specialist audience. He did much pioneering work on molecular biology. SG 2759 of 1987.
Charles Richet (1850-1935) was a French physiologist who won the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1913 for his work on anaphylaxis (a serious allergic reaction that can be fatal). His interests were wide-ranging, and included the paranormal, including spiritualism and extra-sensory perception: in 1905 he became president of the United Kingdom Society for Psychical Research, and he sought to discover a physical origin of psychic experiences. In 1919 he became president of the Institut Métapsychique International in Paris. He was closely associated with the French eugenics movement, and was its president for several years in the 1920s. He features on SG 2754 of 1987.
Think they could have designed a better portrait of Charles Richet, than picturing him in an oval..... am I missing something here.
I think they are trying to tell us that half the brain of a great scientist is worth at least as much as the whole of a brain of people like me.
Alexandre Yersin (1863-1943) was the naturalised-French physician who co-discovered the bacillus which causes bubonic plague - named after him as Yersinia pestis. He made his discovery in 1894, when he had been sent to Hong Kong to investigate an outbreak of plague. Independently, a few days earlier, a Japanese doctor in Hong Kong for the same reason discovered what was probably the same bacillus, but did not get as much credit at the time, partly because he wrote up his discovery in somewhat vague and unclear terms. Yersin is shown on France SG 2757 of 1987.
Joseph Plateau (1801 – 1883) was a Belgian physicist and is credited as the first person to demonstrate the illusion of a moving image. He was one of the first fathers of animation because of his invention called the phenakistoscope, counter rotating disks with repeating drawn images in small increments of motion on one and regularly spaced slits in the other. Belgium celebrated his contribution with this stamp(Scott #356) for the World Film and Fine Arts Festival, Brussels, June, 1947.
Funny, I wanted to see if he was on a stamp, not because of animation, but rather because he was the originator of my favorite mathematics topic, namely, Plateau's Problem. He studied soap films extensively and formulated what are called Plateau's Laws for minimal surfaces of soap films on wire frames. This mathematical topic is still a very active area of research. It was given a boost in 1936, when the Fields Medal was established (sort of a “Nobel Prize” for mathematics) and the first award was given to Jesse Douglas and Tibor Rado for developing rather general solutions.
Henri Moissan (1852-1907) was a French chemist who won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1906 for work on fluorine. He was also one of the first members of the International Atomic Weights Committee. France SG 2705 of 1986.
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (1736-1806) was a French physicist who discovered Coulomb's law, dealing with the electrostatic interaction between charged particles: this led to the development of the understanding of electromagnetism. The coulomb, the SI unit for electric charge, is named after him. He also did research into friction. His name is one of 72 inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. He appears on a French 1961 Red Cross Fund stamp.
Buffon (1707-1788) was a French naturalist and mathematician. He first made his name with advances in the theory of probability, using techniques from calculus. A problem in probability is named Buffon's needle, because he first raised it: if you drop a needle on a wooden floor with strips of wood of equal width, what is the probability that the needle will straddle two strips? Surprisingly, if the needle is no longer than the width of the strips, the solution can be used to approximate the value of pi - one of numerous examples of the surprising interconnections between different branches of mathematics. But he is best-known for his work as a naturalist. He published a 36-volume Natural History, in which he highlighted the fact that different regions of the world have different fauna and flora. His Natural History was hugely influential in the later 18th century. In some degree he anticipated the development of the theory of evolution. France SG 1084 of 1949 depicts him.
Last Edit: Jul 31, 2015 11:55:08 GMT -5 by Deleted
Gerhard Armauer Hansen (1841-1912) was a Norwegian who in 1873 identified the bacillus which causes leprosy. In 1973 Norway issued this stamp for the centenary of the discovery, showing the man and the bacillus.
Louis Pasteur (1822-95) on a French semi-postal of 1936. Best-known for the process of pasteurisation, named after him, he also made the first vaccines for anthrax and rabies, discovered ways of reducing mortality from puerperal fever, and made a number of other important discoveries. Much of his research helped establish the fact that many diseases are caused by germs.
Claude Bernard (1817-78) was a French scientist one of whose great achievements was to establish the value of blind experiments, which are now widely used in testing medicines. He did important work on physiology and homeostasis. He appears on a French semi-postal of 1939.
Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) was a German scientist and explorer who did early work on what we would now call biogeography - the study of what species live in what regions, and how this has changed over geological time. He was also a precursor of the theory of continental drift - suggesting that Africa and South America had once been joined together. His 5-volume work Kosmos - which brought together different branches of science to present the universe as an overall entity - was an international publishing sensation. On my to-read list is a recent biography by Andrea Wulf, The Invention of Nature. Here he is on a 1969 Cuban stamp for the bicentenary of his birth - the bird is a condor.
Pierre-Simon, Marquis de Laplace (1749-1827), known usually as Laplace, was one of the leading French scientists of his time, in what was a heroic period of scientific thinking and discovery. He did major work in probability, mathematics, physics and astronomy. He formulated an important differential equation called Laplace's equation, with solutions which are harmonic functions used in a number of branches of maths, and the Laplace transform which is a key tool in maths, physics and astronomy. He did work on the nebular hypothesis for the origin of the solar system - the theory, still generally accepted, that the solar system formed from a cloud of matter. He postulated the existence of what we call black holes. In 1799 Napoleon appointed him Minister of the Interior, but he was replaced 6 weeks later by Napoleon's brother Lucien, though he was made a senator as a consolation prize. In 1814, when it was clear Napoleon was going to be defeated, he made approaches to the Bourbons. He was made a Marquis in 1817, after the restoration of the French monarchy. He is widely credited with responding, when Napoleon asked him why he had not mentioned God in a major scientific work, "I have no need of that hypothesis" - but spoilsports tell us that the story is apocryphal. Here he is on a French semi-postal of 1955.
Count Amadeo Avogadro (1776-1856) on a 1956 Italian stamp for the centenary of his death. He did pioneering work on molecular theory, and formulated Avogadro's law - shown on the stamp - which states that equal volumes of gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure will contain equal numbers of molecules. One of the constants in the SI system, the Avogadro constant, is named after him.
Last Edit: Feb 22, 2016 14:27:24 GMT -5 by Deleted
Gerhard Armaber Hansen (1841-1912) was a Norwegian doctor who in 1873 first identified the cause of leprosy, though his discovery was largely pooh-poohed. Final proof did not come until a few years later, when Hansen gave tissue samples to Albert Neisser who then published his findings and downplayed Hansen's role, leading to a quarrel. Before Hansen's time, the general view was that leprosy was either inherited or was caused by a miasma - something noxious in the air. Here Hansen is on a French stamp of 1973.
Marie François Xavier Bichât (1771-1802) was a French anatomist who did much to establish the more systematic study of anatomy and did pioneering work on histology - the study of cells and tissues. He was the first to maintain that diseases attacked tissues rather than whole organs. He died at age 30, following complications after falling down the stairs of the main Paris hospital of his time, where he was chief physician. Here he is on a French semi-postal of 1959.
Jean le Rond d'Alembert (1717-1783) was a French mathematician, philosopher, physicist and music theorist. He is best known for two things: first, editing with Diderot the great French 18th-century Encyclopaedia, which did much to reduce the influence of the church, and the Jesuits in particular, on thinking; and second, for his work on a solution to the wave equation which is of central importance in physics for the study of, for instance, sound, light and waves. A formula named after him is the general solution to the one-dimensional wave equation. He appears on a French semi-postal of 1959.
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