The ancient Greek doctor Hippocrates (born about 460 BC, die about 370 BC) on a Greek stamp from a 1950-1 set. Hippocrates was one of the first recorded doctors to hold that disease had a natural explanation, and was not, for example, a punishment from the gods. He helped to establish medicine as a profession in the ancient Greek world. The Hippocratic Oath doctors take is named after him. He was hugely influential well into the 17th century, and held that bodily health was heavily influenced by the balance between four "humours" - black bile, yellow bile, phlegm and blood. If you read the plays of Shakespeare and his contemporaries you will find numerous references to the humours. The modern words 'phlegmatic' and 'sanguine' hark back to his theories.
Nicolas-Louis Vacquelin (1763-1829) was a French pharmacist and chemist who discovered beryllium and chromium. Among his other achievements were the identification of pectin and malic acid in apples, and (with an assistant) the first discovery of an amino acid, asparagine. Here he is on a French stamp of 1963.
Last Edit: Jun 30, 2016 12:52:38 GMT -5 by Deleted
Urbain le Verrier (1811-1877) on a 1958 French stamp. He was a mathematician most of whose work related to astronomy, and who predicted the existence and position of Neptune purely by mathematical methods.
Léon Foucault (1819-1868) on a 1958 French stamp. He abandoned medical studies to become a physicist. He made improvements in the processes of photography, and did important work on the physics of light, among other things demonstrating that light travels more slowly through water than air. He is, though, best known for the experiments in which he used what is called Foucault's pendulum to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. Foucault's pendulums can be found in many cities of the world, and I remember being fascinated as a young boy by the one in the Science Museum in London, England: there is a mesmeric beauty about the movement of the pendulum. The Italian novelist Umberto Eco, who wrote the bestseller The Name of the Rose, also wrote a novel called Foucault's Pendulum.
Claude Louis Berthollet (1748-1822) on a 1958 French stamp. He was a chemist who did pioneering work on chemical equilibria, chemical nomenclature and the bleaching effect of chlorine gas.He was one of the scientists on Napoleon's expedition to Egypt, was appointed a senator by Napoleon, and was Vice President of the French senate in 1804.
Baron Cuvier (1769-1832) on a 1969 French stamp. He did pioneering work in comparative anatomy, vertebrate palaeontology and biostratigraphy, and was one of the first to suggest that there was a time in the past when reptilian species dominated the earth. He demonstrated that extinctions had occurred, and explained them by what is known as catastrophism - believing that they were caused by catastrophic floods, following which new species arose. He opposed early proponents of evolution, arguing that there were simply cycles of the destruction of species followed by the arising of new ones. In 1819 he was given a life peerage. He believed that all humans were descended from the Adam of Genesis, and that whites were superior to other ethnic groups.
Jean Henri Fabre (1823-1915) was an entomologist who wrote popular science books about insects. According to Wikipedia, "in one of Fabre's most famous experiments, he arranged Pine Processionary caterpillars to form a continuous loop around the edge of a pot. As each caterpillar instinctively followed the silken trail of the caterpillars in front of it, the group moved around in a circle for seven days." Glad I wasn't one of those caterpillars. A 1956 French stamp.
Paul Sabatier (1851-1941) on a 1956 French stamp. He was a chemist best known for the Sabatier principle - a qualitative concept in chemical catalysis. My knowledge of chemistry is, to say the least, very limited, so if you want to find out more, look him or the Sabatier principle up on Wikipedia.
Copernicus (1473-1543) on a 1957 French stamp. He is known as the astronomer who put the Sun rather than the Earth at the centre of the universe. In fact he was not the first person to do so: in the third century BC Aristarchus of Samos did the same, and other ancient Greeks had suggested that the Earth was not the centre of the Universe.
Isaac Newton (1642-1727) in full wig on another 1957 French stamp. Well-known for his work on calculus, physics and astronomy, in later life he became Master of the Royal Mint and was active in pursuing counterfeiters of coins.
Édouard Branly (1844-1910) own a 1970 French semi-postal. He was a physicist who did pioneering work on wireless telegraphy and the detection of radio waves (inventing something called the 'Branly coherer'). A road running alongside the Seine in Paris is named after him.
Maurice de Broglie (1875-1960) on a 1970 semi-postal. He was a member of an aristocratic family who inherited the title of Duke de Broglie, and an experimental physicist who did pioneering work on x-rays and spectroscopy. His scientific reputation has been overshadowed by his younger brother Louis de Broglie who did major work on quantum theory.
The chemist Victor Grignard (1871-1935) on a 1971 French semi-postal. He won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1912, for his work on methods of generating organic compounds. During WW1 he worked on chemical weapons.
Pierre-Fidèle Bretonneau (1778-1862) on a 1962 French stamp issued for the centenary of his death. He was a pioneer of modern medicine who believed that many diseases were spread by bacteria - which he called 'morbid seeds' - rather than, for example, a 'miasma' in the atmosphere. He did major work on typhoid and diphtheria and performed the first successful tracheotomy.
Last Edit: May 15, 2017 15:49:29 GMT -5 by Deleted
André Blondel (1863-1938) on a 1942 French stamp. He was an engineer and physicist who was paralysed in the legs in early adulthood, but did not let this stop him working. He invented the oscilloscope (used to observe changing voltages) and a system of units, including the lumen, for measuring light. He also did pioneering work on the transmission of AC power, which was used in 1909 to connect Paris to a hydro-electric power station some 200 miles away.
Post by mourningdoves on Sept 13, 2017 21:52:10 GMT -5
Here's Vilhelm Bjerknes on a pair of Norwegian stamps from 1962.
Bjerknes is credited with essentially inventing modern meteorology, which he did by studying...math and physics. He blended the disciplines of hydrodynamics (the study of the effects of fluids) and thermodynamics (the study of the effects of temperature) to formulate his "circulation theorems", which described and predicted the potential movements of large masses of air. He did most of this in the early years of the 20th century, and the mathematical formulas he utilized were so dense that they couldn't be proven until computers came along much later.
His father Carl Bjerknes was a prominent mathematician; his son Jacob worked with Vilhelm for years, then moved to the United States and continued his career as an eminent meteorologist.
NASA has a very nice page about Vilhelm Bjerknes here, which I highly recommend to weather geeks. Stamp Bears of greater scientific intelligence than I possess might be interested in this .pdf explaining the development of Bjerknes's theories.
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